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Octavian (as he’s usually called in English) ruled as emperor from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D. It was in 26 B.C. that the Senate awarded him the honorific title “Augustus” (meaning venerable, majestic, worthy of honor) and in 8 B.C. that the Senate changed the name of the month, then called Sextilis, to August (Augustus in its Latin form.) The original name meant “sixth” as the old Roman calendar started the year with March and by that reckoning, Sextilis was indeed the sixth month of the year.
To learn more about the calendar and months, try Mapping Time : the Calendar and Its History, by E.G. Richards (529 R39 in the adult library). For more on Caesar Augustus, the library has Augustus : the life of Rome’s First Emperor, by Anthony Everitt (937 Ev27 in the adult library) as well as numerous other sources. The emperor is also well represented in fiction, including most famously, Robert Graves’ novel, I, Claudius, which is nearly as much about Augustus and his wife, Livia, as about Claudius.